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Many Councils now require Archaeological Assessments to be included with Development Applications and Integrated Development Applications. An Archaeological Assessment is a report identifying archaeological issues associated with a site. In urban areas types of archaeological remains might include: early colonial remains, government-related sites, and evidence of nineteenth-century housing and industry. In the rural and semi-rural areas, around the outskirts of Greater Sydney, this may relate to early colonial settlement, convict-related sites, nineteenth-century houses and inns and roadworks.
Casey & Lowe have written at least 50 archaeological assessments.
Excavation Permit Application (s140 and s60)
A permit to disturb or excavate a relic issued by the Heritage Council of New South Wales under Section 60 or Section 140 of the NSW Heritage Act 1977. A permit requires an assessment of the archaeological potential and significance of a site, identification of appropriate recommendations and a Research Design. Permit application typically take 6 to 8 weeks to process.
Casey & Lowe have written many permit applications.
A Research Design is set of questions which can be investigated using archaeological evidence and a methodology for addressing them. A research design is intended to ensure that archaeological investigations focus on genuine research needs. It is an important tool that ensures that when archaeological resources are destroyed by excavation, their information content can be preserved and can contribute to current and relevant knowledge. They are a typical requirement of an Excavation Permit Application.
Casey & Lowe have written many research designs.
An archaeological excavation consists of the methodologies and techniques used to find, expose and record sub-surface archaeological evidence. The excavation of a site can involve the use of large machines to clear away the overburden above the archaeology and to excavate large deposits with low archaeological significance. Once the machine phase is complete the archaeologists move in with shovels, mattocks and picks to expose and then clean the remains (with trowels and brushes) so they can be recorded. Recording involves an extensive photographic record, detailed scale plans and sections, and detailed note-taking on all the information about the various elements of a site. The collections, cleaning, sorting or artefacts recovered during the archaeological program occur at a subsequent stage.
Post-Excavation Phase: This involves the cataloguing of artefacts. This information is then entered into a computer database. Field plans have to be inked and annotated for the final report and photos archived. A detailed report of the recording of the archaeological program is written, including analysis of the results as well as a response to the research design.
Casey & Lowe are a leading director of archaeological excavations and have directed more than 30 excavation projects including:
Archaeological monitoring is recommended for those areas where the impact of the works is not considered to mean the destruction of significant archaeological fabric. Nevertheless the disturbance of features both suspected and unsuspected is possible. In order to provide for the proper assessment and recording of these features an archaeologist should inspect the site works at intervals they consider to be adequate and to be "at call" in case the contractor uncovers remains that should be assessed by the archaeologist. Archaeological monitoring requires a s140 approval from the NSW Heritage Council.
Casey & Lowe have undertaken numerous monitoring programs.
Archaeological surveys are often undertaken as part of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Review of Environmental Factor (REF), and Development Applications (DA or IDA) for semi-rural properties. They involve historical research, review of aerial photos, maps and plans, site survey, analysis and assessment of heritage significance, identification of opportunities and constraints.
Casey & Lowe have undertaken a range of archaeological surveys e.g.:
An archaeological zoning plan can be done for a single site, for a Council area or for a suburb. The end result is a graphic representation of areas containing archaeological sites and their likely heritage significance.
We have carried out Zoning Plans for:
This type of report results in an overview of how to manage the archaeological resource within a specific area. Typically the type of resource is considered to be significant and potential extensive impacts are involved.
Casey & Lowe have written a number of Archaeological Management Strategies e.g.:
Reviews impacts on known archaeological sites or heritage items in light of a proposed development. Need to review heritage significance, how the item will be affected by the proposed development, the impact on the significance of the item by the proposed works and identify ways in which the impact can be mitigated.
We work on a limited range of industrial archaeology projects, such as roads, buried industrial sites, dockyards, small scale foundries, brick and pottery works, water-supply related sites, and flour and water mills.
Aboriginal or Indigenous Archaeology
Casey & Lowe specialise in historical or Non-Indigenous Archaeology. While we do not undertake Indigenous archaeological projects we consistently work with a number of archaeologists who specialise in Aboriginal site archaeology. We can project manage this work or provide clients with recommendations for suitable consultants.
Desktop surveys of heritage items
Desktop surveys are often undertaken as part of an EIS or REF and a survey requires the identification of all known heritage items, identified on relevant Local Environmental Plans (LEP), Regional Environmental Plans (REP) the State Heritage Register (SHR), Register of the National Estate and National Trust and statutory issues associated with the types of items. May require identification of impacts from a proposed development.
Casey & Lowe have completed a number of these types of reports.
Detailed recording of standing structures, including plans, sections, and photographic record.
Archaeology and/or Heritage Displays
The NSW Heritage Council frequently requires the results of an archaeological program to be interpreted within a new development as part of achieving public outcomes. Casey & Lowe have worked on these types of projects; typically identifying appropriate themes, providing the text and images and choosing the artefacts. This is done as part of a team with an interpretation specialist and designer experienced in heritage interpretation.
Notable sites on which Casey & Lowe have provided archaeological interpretation advice:
Identification of Archaeological and Heritage Issues
Clients frequently ring us to advise them on the archaeological requirements and we can organise to discuss requirements with the NSW Heritage Office and/or local council.
Explanation of Archaeological Issues
Heritage and archaeological legislation in NSW is complicated and it is difficult for clients to be across all areas or to understand what certain conditions mean. Because of our extensive experience and expertise we can demystify the process by explaining, in plain English, conditions of consent, relevant provisions of the NSW Heritage Act 1977, suggest which sections of the Act are relevant to a particular project and recommend an appropriate course of action.
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